The cornea, which is the transparent covering on the eye's front wall, is designed to both transmit and focus light rays as they enter the eye. If the cornea is not shaped properly or is somehow clouded, whether because of injury, infection or disease, visual acuity is compromised, and a transplant may be recommended.
There are several different corneal transplant procedures available to help restore vision in patients with corneal problems. The traditional corneal transplant procedure, penetrating keratoplasty, involves replacing the entire damaged cornea with a healthy one from a human donor. Technological advances have allowed for the development of specialized procedures in corneal transplantation. They include endothelial keratoplasty and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, which replace only the damaged part of the cornea while leaving the healthy parts intact.